5

Association Ontology


The Association Ontology specification provides basic concepts and properties for describing specific associations to something, e.g. an occasion, a genre or a mood, and enables furthermore, a mechanism to like/rate and feedback these associations in context to something on/ for the Semantic Web. This ontology combines features of the Similarity Ontology, the Review Ontology and DCMI Metadata Terms. The intend behind this ontology is to provide a mechanism to append (personal) association statements (sim:Association) to something by using the relation sim:association. This step of indirection is neccessary to enable: * reusable association statements and * voting, rating and reviewing of association statements in a specific context. Therefore, the sub class ao:LikeableAssociation was created, which combines the concepts of sim:Association and rev:Review. Simple voting (the “like button”) can be realized by using the property ao:likeminded, which creates a relation between an association statement and an individuum (foaf:Agent). Ratings and reviews can be realized by using the features of the Review Ontology, e.g. rev:rating or rev:Feedback. To address associations of a specific domain, e.g. genre, mood or occasion, new sub properties based on dcterms:subject were created. These are: * ao:genre: a hook for genres descriptions of all kind, * ao:mood: a hook for mood descriptions and * ao:occasion: a hook for occasion descriptions. They are intendend to be an abstact and general hook into their specific domains (genre, mood, occasion). Furthermore, new, more specific sub properties based on these properties should be created to provide a hook in more specific domains, e.g. mo:genre for music genres/styles (this sub property relation isn’t currently the case). To enable voting, rating and reviewing of a reusable association statement in a specific context, the property ao:included_association was created. By using this relation one can include a reusable association statement into another association statement (preferable based on ao:LikeableAssociation). Please have also a look at the example in this document, which illstrates this use case.

Examples

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Music Playlist with Association Statements

This examples shows a music playlist described with the help of the Play Back Ontology, Ordered List Ontology and Association Ontology. The playlist itself is modelled as pbo:Playlist instance and is annotated with further editoral metadata, e.g. a title, a description and a creator, and has a fixed length (olo:length) that represents the number of slots this specific ordered list (olo:OrderedList) instance consist of. Each slot is modelled as pbo:PlaylistSlot instance to ensure that only some media items ( bibo:Document or frbr:Endeavour based concepts) are in the playlist. This is especially realized by the range restriction of pbo:playlist_item. In the example this items are mo:Track instances. The playlist has two association statements related by sim:association. The first one (ex:ZazisAssocation) is modelled as an association to a specific occasion, which is related by ao:occasion. Furthermore, this association includes (music) genre (ao:genre) and mood (ao:mood) categorisations as simple string typed literals. The second association statement (ex:BobsAssociationInUse) is an ao:LikeableAssociation instance that includes (ao:included_association) a reuseable association statement (ex:BobsAssociation). As the domain specific (but abstract) association relations – ao:genre, ao:mood, ao:occasion – have no range, sub properties with specific ranges could be created from them (e.g. mo:genre for music genres/styles (this isn’t currently the case)). To illustrate this use case, the example includes a specific mo:Genre instance (ex:Funk) to ex:BobsAssociation. Finally, because ex:BobsAssociationInUse is a likeable association statement in the context of the described music playlist (ex:FunkyPlaylist), other people could expressed that they like this association – as it is done in the example by using the relation ao:likeminded – or they are able to feedback (e.g. rev:Feedback) or rate (rev:rating) it. more…

@prefix xsd:     <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix dc:      <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .
@prefix olo:     <http://purl.org/ontology/olo/core#> .
@prefix pbo:     <http://purl.org/ontology/pbo/core#> .
@prefix ao:      <http://purl.org/ontology/ao/core#> .
@prefix mo:      <http://purl.org/ontology/mo/> .
@prefix ex:      <http://example.org/> .
@prefix sim:     <http://purl.org/ontology/similarity/> .
 
ex:FunkyPlaylist a pbo:Playlist ;
   dc:title "Funky Playlist"^^xsd:string ;
   dc:description "A playlist full of funky legends"^^xsd:string ;
   dc:creator <http://foaf.me/zazi#me> ;
   olo:length 2 ;
   sim:association ex:ZazisAssociation ;
   sim:association ex:BobsAssociationInUse ;
   pbo:playlist_slot [   
      olo:index 1 ;
      pbo:playlist_item ex:SexMachine
   ] ;
   pbo:playlist_slot [
      olo:index 2 ;
      pbo:playlist_item ex:GoodFoot
   ] .
 
ex:SexMachine a mo:Track ;
   dc:title "Sex Machine"^^xsd:string ;
   dc:creator <http://dbpedia.org/resource/James_Brown> .
 
ex:GoodFoot a mo:Track ;
   dc:title "Good Foot"^^xsd:string .	
 
ex:ZazisAssociation a sim:Association ;
   dc:creator <http://foaf.me/zazi#me> ;
   ao:genre "Funk"^^xsd:string ;
   ao:mood "party"^^xsd:string ;
   ao:occasion "my birthday party 2008"^^xsd:string .
 
ex:BobsAssociation a sim:Association ;
   dc:creator <http://foaf.me/zazi#me> ;
   ao:genre ex:Funk ;
   ao:mood "happy"^^xsd:string ;
   ao:occasion "good feeling music"^^xsd:string .
 
ex:BobsAssociationInUse a ao:LikeableAssociation ;
   ao:included_association ex:BobsAssociation ;
   ao:likeminded <http://moustaki.org/foaf.rdf#moustaki> .
 
ex:Funk a mo:Genre .

UMIRL example

This example was originally modelled with help of UMIRL (http://www.media.mit.edu/~chaiwei/papers/usermodeling.pdf) and is now recreated with the Cognitive Characteristics Ontology. This example shows a part of an user profile as it can be taken from an user account of a personal music knowledge base. The user profile is from the person John White, who can play the piano and sing by having no education in music. Furthermore, he is interested in several music genres, the music artist Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the music group the Beatles, the music song “Yesterday” from the Beatles and some self-defined idiosyncratic music genres. At the beginning, all cognitive patterns of this user are described by simple semantic relations, which are sub properties of cco:cognitive_characteristic. Thereby, the most of the topics of the cognitive characteristic relations are information resources from the information service DBPedia and one topic is a information resource from DBTune. Afterwards, some of these shortcut relations are described more in detail with help of cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instances. Each of these cognitive characteristic descriptions is related to a weighting with a different weight value (related by wo:weight_value) and the same scale (related by wo:scale). Due to these weightings, we can conclude that John White can sing and play the piano quite good. However, he has no knowledge in musical foundations. Furthermore, a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instance is associated with a topic (by cco:topic) of a shortcut relation and a property (by cco:characteristic) of such a relation. Besides these information some of them are also related with an activity (associated by cco:activity), which are information resources from OpenCyc (playing a musical instrument) or DBPedia (singing). This user profile example includes especially detailed descriptions of John White’s interest in specific music genres. Thereby, we can conclude (besides other things) that he is a big fan of Blues and Rock music and quite interested in romantic music (ex:IdiosyncraticGenre2). The last music genre is defined as music context, which he prefers weekdays (represented by days:WeekdayInterval) at “bedtime” (ca. 11 pm). This idiosyncratic genre is itself defined as a sim:Association instance, which is titled as “romantic music” and should be very slow (largo, associated by ex:tempo as sub property of ao:context). more…

@prefix foaf:      <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix cco:       <http://purl.org/ontology/cco/core#> .
@prefix wo:        <http://purl.org/ontology/wo/core#> .
@prefix days:      <http://ontologi.es/days#> .
@prefix tl:        <http://perl.org/NET/c4dm/timeline.owl#> .
@prefix xsd:       <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix ex:        <http://example.org/> .
@prefix rdf:       <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs:      <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix owl:       <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix dc:        <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .
@prefix cv:        <http://kaste.lv/~captsolo/semweb/resume/cv.rdfs#> .
@prefix cvbase:    <http://kaste.lv/~captsolo/semweb/resume/base.rdfs#> .
@prefix countries: <http://www.daml.org/2001/09/countries/countries.daml#> .
@prefix sim:       <http://purl.org/ontology/similarity/> .
@prefix ao:        <http://purl.org/ontology/ao/core#> .
 
ex:APerson
   a foaf:Person , cv:Person ;
   foaf:name "John White" ;
   foaf:birthday "1974-07-09"^^xsd:date ;
   foaf:gender "male" ;
   cv:hasCitizenship countries:US ;
   cco:skill <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Piano> ;
   cco:skill <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Vocal> ;
   cco:expertise <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Music> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Classical_music> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Blues> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Pop_music> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Rock_music> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/The_Beatles> ;
   cco:interest  <http://dbtune.org/musicbrainz/resource/signal/8aefa373-2858-4643-b691-cad4ac7c971a> ;
   cco:interest ex:IdiosyncraticGenre1 ;
   cco:interest ex:IdiosyncraticGenre2 ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Piano> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:skill ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 6.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:activity <http://sw.opencyc.org/concept/Mx4rvVjUJ5wpEbGdrcN5Y29ycA>
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Vocal> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:skill ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 7.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:activity <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Singing>
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Music> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:expertise ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 0.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Classical_music> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 7.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Blues> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 9.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Pop_music> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 5.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Rock_music> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 8.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic ex:IdiosyncraticGenre2 ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 7.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:appear_time [
         a days:WeekdayInterval ;
         dc:title "bedtime" ;
         tl:at "23:00:00"^^xsd:time 
         ] ;
      ] .
 
ex:ACV
   a cv:CV ;
   cv:aboutPerson ex:APerson ;
   cv:hasEducation [
      a cv:Education ;
      cv:degreeType cvbase:EduMaster 
      ] ;
   cv:hasWorkHistory ex:AWorkHistory .
 
ex:AWorkHistory
   a cv:WorkHistory ;
   cv:careerLevel cvbase:Student .
 
ex:tempo
   a rdf:Property , owl:DatatypeProperty ;
   rdfs:range xsd:string ;
   rdfs:subPropertyOf ao:context .
 
ex:IdiosyncraticGenre1
   a sim:Association ;
   dc:title "happy music" ;
   ao:genre <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Pop_music> ;
   ex:tempo "allegro" ;
   ao:mood "happy" .
 
ex:IdiosyncraticGenre2
   a sim:Association ;
   dc:title "romantic music" ;
   ex:tempo "largo" .
 
ex:AScale a wo:Scale ;
   wo:min_weight 0.0 ;
   wo:max_weight 9.0 ;
   wo:step_size 1.0 .
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