weightining

Weighting Ontology


The Weighting Ontology includes a general multiple purpose weight concept. This concept can be used to associate any concept to a wo:Weight instance(s) with the property wo:weight. The second property of wo:Weight is wo:weight_value, which is a simple xsd:decimal based datatype property to associate the numeric value of the weighting. Furthermore, this ontology includes a wo:Scale, which is modeled as a sub class of scovo:Dimension to relate it to its specified scovo:Item based concept (wo:Weight) via wo:scale. To define the range of this scale the properties wo:min_weight and wo:min_weight can be used. These are sub properties of the related minimum and maximum properties of the Statistical Core Vocabulary (scovo:min and scovo:max) and the Review Vocabulary (rev:minRating and rev:maxRating). Finally one can define a step size (wo:step_size) for the weighting scales.

Examples

Add another example.

UMIRL example

This example was originally modelled with help of UMIRL (http://www.media.mit.edu/~chaiwei/papers/usermodeling.pdf) and is now recreated with the Cognitive Characteristics Ontology. This example shows a part of an user profile as it can be taken from an user account of a personal music knowledge base. The user profile is from the person John White, who can play the piano and sing by having no education in music. Furthermore, he is interested in several music genres, the music artist Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the music group the Beatles, the music song “Yesterday” from the Beatles and some self-defined idiosyncratic music genres. At the beginning, all cognitive patterns of this user are described by simple semantic relations, which are sub properties of cco:cognitive_characteristic. Thereby, the most of the topics of the cognitive characteristic relations are information resources from the information service DBPedia and one topic is a information resource from DBTune. Afterwards, some of these shortcut relations are described more in detail with help of cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instances. Each of these cognitive characteristic descriptions is related to a weighting with a different weight value (related by wo:weight_value) and the same scale (related by wo:scale). Due to these weightings, we can conclude that John White can sing and play the piano quite good. However, he has no knowledge in musical foundations. Furthermore, a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instance is associated with a topic (by cco:topic) of a shortcut relation and a property (by cco:characteristic) of such a relation. Besides these information some of them are also related with an activity (associated by cco:activity), which are information resources from OpenCyc (playing a musical instrument) or DBPedia (singing). This user profile example includes especially detailed descriptions of John White’s interest in specific music genres. Thereby, we can conclude (besides other things) that he is a big fan of Blues and Rock music and quite interested in romantic music (ex:IdiosyncraticGenre2). The last music genre is defined as music context, which he prefers weekdays (represented by days:WeekdayInterval) at “bedtime” (ca. 11 pm). This idiosyncratic genre is itself defined as a sim:Association instance, which is titled as “romantic music” and should be very slow (largo, associated by ex:tempo as sub property of ao:context). more…

@prefix foaf:      <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix cco:       <http://purl.org/ontology/cco/core#> .
@prefix wo:        <http://purl.org/ontology/wo/core#> .
@prefix days:      <http://ontologi.es/days#> .
@prefix tl:        <http://perl.org/NET/c4dm/timeline.owl#> .
@prefix xsd:       <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix ex:        <http://example.org/> .
@prefix rdf:       <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs:      <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix owl:       <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> .
@prefix dc:        <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> .
@prefix cv:        <http://kaste.lv/~captsolo/semweb/resume/cv.rdfs#> .
@prefix cvbase:    <http://kaste.lv/~captsolo/semweb/resume/base.rdfs#> .
@prefix countries: <http://www.daml.org/2001/09/countries/countries.daml#> .
@prefix sim:       <http://purl.org/ontology/similarity/> .
@prefix ao:        <http://purl.org/ontology/ao/core#> .
 
ex:APerson
   a foaf:Person , cv:Person ;
   foaf:name "John White" ;
   foaf:birthday "1974-07-09"^^xsd:date ;
   foaf:gender "male" ;
   cv:hasCitizenship countries:US ;
   cco:skill <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Piano> ;
   cco:skill <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Vocal> ;
   cco:expertise <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Music> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Classical_music> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Blues> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Pop_music> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Rock_music> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/The_Beatles> ;
   cco:interest  <http://dbtune.org/musicbrainz/resource/signal/8aefa373-2858-4643-b691-cad4ac7c971a> ;
   cco:interest ex:IdiosyncraticGenre1 ;
   cco:interest ex:IdiosyncraticGenre2 ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Piano> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:skill ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 6.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:activity <http://sw.opencyc.org/concept/Mx4rvVjUJ5wpEbGdrcN5Y29ycA>
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Vocal> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:skill ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 7.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:activity <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Singing>
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Music> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:expertise ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 0.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Classical_music> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 7.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Blues> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 9.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Pop_music> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 5.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Rock_music> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 8.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic ex:IdiosyncraticGenre2 ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 7.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:appear_time [
         a days:WeekdayInterval ;
         dc:title "bedtime" ;
         tl:at "23:00:00"^^xsd:time 
         ] ;
      ] .
 
ex:ACV
   a cv:CV ;
   cv:aboutPerson ex:APerson ;
   cv:hasEducation [
      a cv:Education ;
      cv:degreeType cvbase:EduMaster 
      ] ;
   cv:hasWorkHistory ex:AWorkHistory .
 
ex:AWorkHistory
   a cv:WorkHistory ;
   cv:careerLevel cvbase:Student .
 
ex:tempo
   a rdf:Property , owl:DatatypeProperty ;
   rdfs:range xsd:string ;
   rdfs:subPropertyOf ao:context .
 
ex:IdiosyncraticGenre1
   a sim:Association ;
   dc:title "happy music" ;
   ao:genre <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Pop_music> ;
   ex:tempo "allegro" ;
   ao:mood "happy" .
 
ex:IdiosyncraticGenre2
   a sim:Association ;
   dc:title "romantic music" ;
   ex:tempo "largo" .
 
ex:AScale a wo:Scale ;
   wo:min_weight 0.0 ;
   wo:max_weight 9.0 ;
   wo:step_size 1.0 .

Soccer example

This user profile example above, with different cognitive characteristics of the same topic, represents the person John Wayne, who has tree different cognitive patterns – a skill (cco:skill), an expertise (cco:expertise) and an interest (cco:interest) – with the topic soccer. At the beginning, each semantic relation is modelled as shortcut relation. Afterwards, follow more detailed descriptions of these three cognitive characteristics, which are associated to John Wayne by using the property cco:habit. Each of these cco:CogntiveCharacteristic instances include, besides the basis information of the shortcut relations, also a weight description and two of them, furthermore, an activity relation (associated by cco:activity). So that a reasoning engine is now not only able to automatically infer the knowledge from the shortcut relations now, but rather then also from the reification class instances. That means, one can conclude that John Wayne * can play soccer quite moderate, * has a quite good knowledge about the topic soccer and * and is moderatly interested in watching soccer. Such a modelling has the advantage that one can talk about one and the same topic, independently of the activities that are related to cognitive pattern descriptions of a person. This is possible, because activity, cognitive characteristic and topic have their own, separate dimension. Due to the property reification definitions from here and the shortcut relation and property reification rules of the Property Reification Vocabulary one can clearly reason that the shortcut relations and reification class instances in the soccer example above are belonging semantically together (here pairwise). more…

@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix cco:  <http://purl.org/ontology/cco/core#> .
@prefix wo:   <http://purl.org/ontology/wo/core#> .
@prefix ex:   <http://example.org/> .
 
ex:APerson
   a foaf:Person ;
   foaf:name "John Wayne" ;
   cco:skill <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Football_(soccer)> ;
   cco:expertise <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Football_(soccer)> ;
   cco:interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Football_(soccer)> ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Football_(soccer)> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:skill ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 6.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:activity <http://sw.opencyc.org/concept/Mx4rwJRiEpwpEbGdrcN5Y29ycA>
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Football_(soccer)> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:expertise ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 7.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Football_(soccer)> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 5.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:activity <http://sw.opencyc.org/concept/Mx4rwO0J55wpEbGdrcN5Y29ycA>
      ] .
 
ex:AScale a wo:Scale ;
   wo:min_weight 0.0 ;
   wo:max_weight 9.0 ;
   wo:step_size 1.0 .

Preference Example

This example is originally taken from the first draft of the Weighted Interest Vocabulary (http://xmlns.notu.be/wi/) and was transformed to be conform with the current version of the Cognitive Characteristics Ontology. This example shows a part of a preference model of a person (here Libby Miller). It consists of two preferences, each is modeled as a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instance, which are related to the person by using the property cco:habit. An interest itself consists here at least of a topic (cco:topic), a weight (wo:weight) and an characteristic dynamics description (cco:characteristic_dynamics) relation. Furthermore, in addition to the standard weight relation (wo:weight), which should reflect the current interest in a topic, the overall interest in a topic, can be related by using the property (cco:overall_weight) with a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instance as subject. The topics of the weights are both a BBC radio program. Every weight is modeled as a wo:Weight instance, which consists here of the weight value (wo:weight_value) and a link to a scale description (wo:Scale). A wo:Scale instance describes the range (wo:min_weight and wo:max_weight) for the groups of weights, which are linked to it, and furthermore, the step size (wo:step_size), which is possible in this range. cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instances can have different interest dynamics (cco:CharacteristicDynamics) relations. These are specific events (event:Event), which model temporal interest statistics. Besides the already known time period (days:WeekdayInterval), which is related by the property cco:appear_time, a temporal weight (related by wo:weight_value, because cco:CharacteristicDynamics is a sub class of wo:Weight) and can describe the temporal interest in a topic to a context, which is here additionally described by a spatial relation (event:place). To sum up the example, the person Libby Miller prefers radio 4 over radio 5 when she is working at her working place (which is every weekday between 8am and 7pm). more…

@prefix foaf:   <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix cco:    <http://purl.org/ontology/cco/core#> .
@prefix wo:     <http://purl.org/ontology/wo/core#> .
@prefix days:   <http://ontologi.es/days#> .
@prefix tl:     <http://perl.org/NET/c4dm/timeline.owl#> .
@prefix xsd:    <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix ex:     <http://example.org/> .
@prefix event:  <http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#> .
@prefix geo:    <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> .
 
<http://swordfish.rdfweb.org/people/libby/rdfweb/webwho.xrdf#me>
   a foaf:Person ;
   foaf:name "Libby Miller" ;
   cco:interest <http://www.bbc.co.uk/5live#service> ;
   cco:interest <http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4#service> ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://www.bbc.co.uk/5live#service> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 3.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:characteristic_dynamics ex:Working ;
      cco:activity <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Listening>
      ] ;
   cco:habit [
      a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
      cco:topic <http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4#service> ;
      cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
      cco:overall_weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_value 7.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      wo:weight [ 
         a wo:Weight ;
         wo:weight_scale 5.0 ;
         wo:scale ex:AScale 
         ] ;
      cco:characteristic_dynamics ex:Working ;
      cco:activity <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Listening>
      ] .
 
ex:AScale a wo:Scale ;
   wo:min_weight 0.0 ;
   wo:max_weight 9.0 ;
   wo:step_size 1.0 .
 
ex:Working a cc:CharacteristicDynamics ;
   cco:appear_time [
      a days:WeekdayInterval ;
      tl:at "08:00:00"^^xsd:time ;
      tl:end "19:00:00"^^xsd:time 
      ] ;
   wo:weight_value 9.0 ;
   wo:scale ex:AScale ;
   event:place ex:MyWorkingPlace .
 
ex:MyWorkingPlace a geo:Point .

Scientific Research Interests Example

This example is originally taken from the E-foaf:interest Vocabulary Specification 0.2 (http://wiki.larkc.eu/e-foaf:interest) and was transformed to be conform with the current version of the Cognitive Characteristics Ontology. This example describes a person (here Ricardo Baeza-Yates), who is interested in (foaf:topic_interest) a specific topic (here “The World Wide Web”). This interest is described more in detail with help of a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instance (ex:WebInterest). It has a current weight (wo:weight), a total weight (cco:overall_weight) and two attention durations – a ultimative duration (cco:ultimative_duratation) and a longest duration (cco:longest_duration). All these values can be timestamped, e.g. re. their date of modification (dcterms:modifified). A cco:CognitiveCharacteristic instance (ex:ASpecificConcext) describes the appearing of this interest in a certain context (here a specific paper). To describe the different weightings, different scales can be associated to them. more…

@prefix xsd:      <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .
@prefix foaf:     <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix tl:       <http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/timeline.owl#> .
@prefix dcterms:  <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix cco:      <http://purl.org/ontology/cco/core#> .
@prefix wo:       <http://purl.org/ontology/wo/core#> .
@prefix ex:       <http://example.org/> .
@prefix time:     <http://www.w3.org/2006/time#> .
 
ex:ASpecificContext a cco:CharacteristicDynamics ;
   dcterms:subject <http://dblp.uni-trier.de/rec/bibtex/conf/cikm/AlonsoGB09> ;
   cco:appear_time [ 
      a time:UTInstant ;
      time:inXSDDateTime "2009-11-15T05:30:00+08:00"^^xsd:dateTime 
      ] .
 
<http://linkeddata.uriburner.com/describe/?url=http://tw.rpi.edu/wiki/Special:URIResolver/Ricardo_A._Baeza-2DYates>
   a foaf:Person ;
   foaf:topic_interest <http://dbpedia.org/resource/World_Wide_Web> ;
   cco:habit ex:WebInterest ;
   foaf:name "Ricardo Baeza-Yates" .
 
ex:WebInterest a cco:CognitiveCharacteristic ;
   cco:topic <http://dbpedia.org/resource/World_Wide_Web> ;
   cco:characteristic cco:interest ;
   cco:overall_weight [ 
      a wo:Weight ;
      wo:weight_value 65.0 ;
      wo:scale ex:AScale ;
      dcterms:modified "2009-12-22T23:30:00+08:00"^^xsd:dateTime
      ] ;
   cco:characteristic_dynamics ex:ASpecificContext ;
   cco:ultimative_duration [ 
      a tl:UTInterval ;
      tl:duration "P10Y"^^xsd:duration ;
      dcterms:modified "2010-01-10T03:15:00+08:00"^^xsd:dateTime
      ] ;
   cco:longest_duration [ 
      a tl:UTInterval ;
      tl:duration "P9Y"^^xsd:duration ;
      dcterms:modified "2010-01-17T05:30:00+08:00"^^xsd:dateTime
      ] ;
   wo:weight [ 
      a wo:Weight ;
      wo:weight_value 7.81 ;
      wo:scale ex:AnotherScale ;
      dcterms:modified "2010-01-17T13:30:00+08:00"^^xsd:dateTime
      ] .
 
ex:AScale a wo:Scale ;
   wo:min_weight 0.0 ;
   wo:max_weight 100 ;
   wo:step_size 5.0 .
 
ex:AnotherScale a wo:Scale ;
   wo:min_weight 0.0 ;
   wo:max_weight 10.0 ;
   wo:step_size 0.01 .